Permutations in JavaScript?

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I’m trying to write a function that does the following:

  • takes an array of integers as an argument (e.g. [1,2,3,4])
  • creates an array of all the possible permutations of [1,2,3,4], with each permutation having a length of 4

the function below (I found it online) does this by taking a string as an argument, and returning all the permutations of that string

I could not figure out how to modify it to make it work with an array of integers, (I think this has something to do with how some of the methods work differently on strings than they do on integers, but I’m not sure…)

var permArr = [], usedChars = [];
function permute(input) {
  var i, ch, chars = input.split("");
  for (i = 0; i < chars.length; i++) {
    ch = chars.splice(i, 1);
    usedChars.push(ch);
    if (chars.length == 0)
      permArr[permArr.length] = usedChars.join("");
    permute(chars.join(""));
    chars.splice(i, 0, ch);
    usedChars.pop();
  }
  return permArr
};

Note: I’m looking to make the function return arrays of integers, not an array of strings.

I really need the solution to be in JavaScript. I’ve already figured out how to do this in python

First answer

If you notice, the code actually splits the chars into an array prior to do any permutation, so you simply remove the join and split operation

var permArr = [],
  usedChars = [];

function permute(input) {
  var i, ch;
  for (i = 0; i < input.length; i++) {
    ch = input.splice(i, 1)[0];
    usedChars.push(ch);
    if (input.length == 0) {
      permArr.push(usedChars.slice());
    }
    permute(input);
    input.splice(i, 0, ch);
    usedChars.pop();
  }
  return permArr
};


document.write(JSON.stringify(permute([5, 3, 7, 1])));

Second answer

The following very efficient algorithm uses Heap’s method to generate all permutations of N elements with runtime complexity in O(N!):

function permute(permutation) {
  var length = permutation.length,
      result = [permutation.slice()],
      c = new Array(length).fill(0),
      i = 1, k, p;

  while (i < length) {
    if (c[i] < i) {
      k = i % 2 && c[i];
      p = permutation[i];
      permutation[i] = permutation[k];
      permutation[k] = p;
      ++c[i];
      i = 1;
      result.push(permutation.slice());
    } else {
      c[i] = 0;
      ++i;
    }
  }
  return result;
}

console.log(permute([1, 2, 3]));

The same algorithm implemented as a generator with space complexity in O(N):

function* permute(permutation) {
  var length = permutation.length,
      c = Array(length).fill(0),
      i = 1, k, p;

  yield permutation.slice();
  while (i < length) {
    if (c[i] < i) {
      k = i % 2 && c[i];
      p = permutation[i];
      permutation[i] = permutation[k];
      permutation[k] = p;
      ++c[i];
      i = 1;
      yield permutation.slice();
    } else {
      c[i] = 0;
      ++i;
    }
  }
}

// Memory efficient iteration through permutations:
for (var permutation of permute([1, 2, 3])) console.log(permutation);

// Simple array conversion:
var permutations = [...permute([1, 2, 3])];

Performance comparison

Feel free to add your implementation to the following benchmark.js test suite:

function permute_SiGanteng(input) {
  var permArr = [],
    usedChars = [];

  function permute(input) {
    var i, ch;
    for (i = 0; i < input.length; i++) {
      ch = input.splice(i, 1)[0];
      usedChars.push(ch);
      if (input.length == 0) {
        permArr.push(usedChars.slice());
      }
      permute(input);
      input.splice(i, 0, ch);
      usedChars.pop();
    }
    return permArr
  }
  return permute(input);
}

function permute_delimited(inputArr) {
  var results = [];

  function permute(arr, memo) {
    var cur, memo = memo || [];
    for (var i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) {
      cur = arr.splice(i, 1);
      if (arr.length === 0) {
        results.push(memo.concat(cur));
      }
      permute(arr.slice(), memo.concat(cur));
      arr.splice(i, 0, cur[0]);
    }
    return results;
  }
  return permute(inputArr);
}

function permute_monkey(inputArray) {
  return inputArray.reduce(function permute(res, item, key, arr) {
    return res.concat(arr.length > 1 && arr.slice(0, key).concat(arr.slice(key + 1)).reduce(permute, []).map(function(perm) {
      return [item].concat(perm);
    }) || item);
  }, []);
}

function permute_Oriol(input) {
  var permArr = [],
    usedChars = [];
  return (function main() {
    for (var i = 0; i < input.length; i++) {
      var ch = input.splice(i, 1)[0];
      usedChars.push(ch);
      if (input.length == 0) {
        permArr.push(usedChars.slice());
      }
      main();
      input.splice(i, 0, ch);
      usedChars.pop();
    }
    return permArr;
  })();
}

function permute_MarkusT(input) {
  function permutate(array, callback) {
      function p(array, index, callback) {
          function swap(a, i1, i2) {
              var t = a[i1];
              a[i1] = a[i2];
              a[i2] = t;
          }
          if (index == array.length - 1) {
              callback(array);
              return 1;
          } else {
              var count = p(array, index + 1, callback);
              for (var i = index + 1; i < array.length; i++) {
                  swap(array, i, index);
                  count += p(array, index + 1, callback);
                  swap(array, i, index);
              }
              return count;
          }
      }
      if (!array || array.length == 0) {
          return 0;
      }
      return p(array, 0, callback);
  }
  var result = [];
  permutate(input, function(a) {
      result.push(a.slice(0));
  });
  return result;
}

function permute_le_m(permutation) {
  var length = permutation.length,
  		result = [permutation.slice()],
      c = new Array(length).fill(0),
      i = 1, k, p;
  
  while (i < length) {
    if (c[i] < i) {
      k = i % 2 && c[i],
      p = permutation[i];
      permutation[i] = permutation[k];
      permutation[k] = p;
      ++c[i];
      i = 1;
      result.push(permutation.slice());
    } else {
      c[i] = 0;
      ++i;
    }
  }
  return result;
}

function permute_Urielzen(arr) {
    var finalArr = [];
    var iterator = function (arrayTaken, tree) {
        for (var i = 0; i < tree; i++) {
            var temp = arrayTaken.slice();
            temp.splice(tree - 1 - i, 0, temp.splice(tree - 1, 1)[0]);
            if (tree >= arr.length) {
                finalArr.push(temp);
            } else { iterator(temp, tree + 1); }
        }
    }
    iterator(arr, 1); return finalArr;
}

function permute_Taylor_Hakes(arr) {
  var permutations = [];
  if (arr.length === 1) {
    return [ arr ];
  }

  for (var i = 0; i <  arr.length; i++) { 
    var subPerms = permute_Taylor_Hakes(arr.slice(0, i).concat(arr.slice(i + 1)));
    for (var j = 0; j < subPerms.length; j++) {
      subPerms[j].unshift(arr[i]);
      permutations.push(subPerms[j]);
    }
  }
  return permutations;
}

var Combinatorics = (function () {
    'use strict';
    var version = "0.5.2";
    /* combinatory arithmetics */
    var P = function(m, n) {
        var p = 1;
        while (n--) p *= m--;
        return p;
    };
    var C = function(m, n) {
        if (n > m) {
            return 0;
        }
        return P(m, n) / P(n, n);
    };
    var factorial = function(n) {
        return P(n, n);
    };
    var factoradic = function(n, d) {
        var f = 1;
        if (!d) {
            for (d = 1; f < n; f *= ++d);
            if (f > n) f /= d--;
        } else {
            f = factorial(d);
        }
        var result = [0];
        for (; d; f /= d--) {
            result[d] = Math.floor(n / f);
            n %= f;
        }
        return result;
    };
    /* common methods */
    var addProperties = function(dst, src) {
        Object.keys(src).forEach(function(p) {
            Object.defineProperty(dst, p, {
                value: src[p],
                configurable: p == 'next'
            });
        });
    };
    var hideProperty = function(o, p) {
        Object.defineProperty(o, p, {
            writable: true
        });
    };
    var toArray = function(f) {
        var e, result = [];
        this.init();
        while (e = this.next()) result.push(f ? f(e) : e);
        this.init();
        return result;
    };
    var common = {
        toArray: toArray,
        map: toArray,
        forEach: function(f) {
            var e;
            this.init();
            while (e = this.next()) f(e);
            this.init();
        },
        filter: function(f) {
            var e, result = [];
            this.init();
            while (e = this.next()) if (f(e)) result.push(e);
            this.init();
            return result;
        },
        lazyMap: function(f) {
            this._lazyMap = f;
            return this;
        },
        lazyFilter: function(f) {
            Object.defineProperty(this, 'next', {
                writable: true
            });
            if (typeof f !== 'function') {
                this.next = this._next;
            } else {
                if (typeof (this._next) !== 'function') {
                    this._next = this.next;
                }
                var _next = this._next.bind(this);
                this.next = (function() {
                    var e;
                    while (e = _next()) {
                        if (f(e))
                            return e;
                    }
                    return e;
                }).bind(this);
            }
            Object.defineProperty(this, 'next', {
                writable: false
            });
            return this;
        }

    };
    /* power set */
    var power = function(ary, fun) {
        var size = 1 << ary.length,
            sizeOf = function() {
                return size;
            },
            that = Object.create(ary.slice(), {
                length: {
                    get: sizeOf
                }
            });
        hideProperty(that, 'index');
        addProperties(that, {
            valueOf: sizeOf,
            init: function() {
                that.index = 0;
            },
            nth: function(n) {
                if (n >= size) return;
                var i = 0,
                    result = [];
                for (; n; n >>>= 1, i++) if (n & 1) result.push(this[i]);
                return (typeof (that._lazyMap) === 'function')?that._lazyMap(result):result;
            },
            next: function() {
                return this.nth(this.index++);
            }
        });
        addProperties(that, common);
        that.init();
        return (typeof (fun) === 'function') ? that.map(fun) : that;
    };
    /* combination */
    var nextIndex = function(n) {
        var smallest = n & -n,
            ripple = n + smallest,
            new_smallest = ripple & -ripple,
            ones = ((new_smallest / smallest) >> 1) - 1;
        return ripple | ones;
    };
    var combination = function(ary, nelem, fun) {
        if (!nelem) nelem = ary.length;
        if (nelem < 1) throw new RangeError;
        if (nelem > ary.length) throw new RangeError;
        var first = (1 << nelem) - 1,
            size = C(ary.length, nelem),
            maxIndex = 1 << ary.length,
            sizeOf = function() {
                return size;
            },
            that = Object.create(ary.slice(), {
                length: {
                    get: sizeOf
                }
            });
        hideProperty(that, 'index');
        addProperties(that, {
            valueOf: sizeOf,
            init: function() {
                this.index = first;
            },
            next: function() {
                if (this.index >= maxIndex) return;
                var i = 0,
                    n = this.index,
                    result = [];
                for (; n; n >>>= 1, i++) {
                    if (n & 1) result[result.length] = this[i];
                }

                this.index = nextIndex(this.index);
                return (typeof (that._lazyMap) === 'function')?that._lazyMap(result):result;
            }
        });
        addProperties(that, common);
        that.init();
        return (typeof (fun) === 'function') ? that.map(fun) : that;
    };
    /* permutation */
    var _permutation = function(ary) {
        var that = ary.slice(),
            size = factorial(that.length);
        that.index = 0;
        that.next = function() {
            if (this.index >= size) return;
            var copy = this.slice(),
                digits = factoradic(this.index, this.length),
                result = [],
                i = this.length - 1;
            for (; i >= 0; --i) result.push(copy.splice(digits[i], 1)[0]);
            this.index++;
            return (typeof (that._lazyMap) === 'function')?that._lazyMap(result):result;
        };
        return that;
    };
    // which is really a permutation of combination
    var permutation = function(ary, nelem, fun) {
        if (!nelem) nelem = ary.length;
        if (nelem < 1) throw new RangeError;
        if (nelem > ary.length) throw new RangeError;
        var size = P(ary.length, nelem),
            sizeOf = function() {
                return size;
            },
            that = Object.create(ary.slice(), {
                length: {
                    get: sizeOf
                }
            });
        hideProperty(that, 'cmb');
        hideProperty(that, 'per');
        addProperties(that, {
            valueOf: function() {
                return size;
            },
            init: function() {
                this.cmb = combination(ary, nelem);
                this.per = _permutation(this.cmb.next());
            },
            next: function() {
                var result = this.per.next();
                if (!result) {
                    var cmb = this.cmb.next();
                    if (!cmb) return;
                    this.per = _permutation(cmb);
                    return this.next();
                }
                return (typeof (that._lazyMap) === 'function')?that._lazyMap(result):result;
            }
        });
        addProperties(that, common);
        that.init();
        return (typeof (fun) === 'function') ? that.map(fun) : that;
    };

    /* export */
    var Combinatorics = Object.create(null);
    addProperties(Combinatorics, {
        C: C,
        P: P,
        factorial: factorial,
        factoradic: factoradic,
        permutation: permutation,
    });
    return Combinatorics;
})();

var suite = new Benchmark.Suite;
var input = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4];

suite.add('permute_SiGanteng', function() {
    permute_SiGanteng(input);
  })
  .add('permute_delimited', function() {
    permute_delimited(input);
  })
  .add('permute_monkey', function() {
    permute_monkey(input);
  })
  .add('permute_Oriol', function() {
    permute_Oriol(input);
  })
  .add('permute_MarkusT', function() {
    permute_MarkusT(input);
  })
  .add('permute_le_m', function() {
    permute_le_m(input);
  })
  .add('permute_Urielzen', function() {
    permute_Urielzen(input);
  })
  .add('permute_Taylor_Hakes', function() {
    permute_Taylor_Hakes(input);
  })
  .add('permute_Combinatorics', function() {
    Combinatorics.permutation(input).toArray();
  })
  .on('cycle', function(event) {
    console.log(String(event.target));
  })
  .on('complete', function() {
    console.log('Fastest is ' + this.filter('fastest').map('name'));
  })
  .run({async: true});
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/lodash.js/4.17.4/lodash.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/platform/1.3.4/platform.min.js"></script>
<script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/benchmark/2.1.4/benchmark.min.js"></script>

Run-time results for Chrome 48:

Third answer

var inputArray = [1, 2, 3];

var result = inputArray.reduce(function permute(res, item, key, arr) {
    return res.concat(arr.length > 1 && arr.slice(0, key).concat(arr.slice(key + 1)).reduce(permute, []).map(function(perm) { return [item].concat(perm); }) || item);
}, []);


alert(JSON.stringify(result));
Reprint:https://stackoverflow.com/questions/9960908/permutations-in-javascript
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